From Scramble - The Aviation Magazine
|Lynx Mk81 (SH-14D)|
|Role||Utility/anti-submarine warfare Helicopter|
|First Flight||21 March 1971|
|Number built||Production completed|
|Superseeded by||AgustaWesland AW159 Wildcat|
|Maximum takeoff weight||kg||lb|
|Engines||two Rolls-Royce Gem|
|Power||835 kW (each)||1,120 hp (each)|
|Rate of climb||m/min||ft/min|
The Westland WG-13 Lynx is a multi-purpose military helicopter designed and built by Westland at its factory in Yeovil. Designed for naval (wheeled landing gear) and battlefield use (skidded landing gear), missions include battlefield utility, anti-armour, search and rescue and anti-submarine warfare roles. From the military WG-13, the larger civil WG-30 was developed.
Initial production model, produced in battlefield (skidded undercarriage) and naval (wheeled undercarriage) variants and Gem 2 engines.
Announced in 1984, the Lynx 3 was an enhanced development, featuring a stretched fuselage, a redesigned tailboom, Gem 60-3/1 engines, a wheeled tricycle undercarriage, BERP rotor blades, and increased fuel capacity. Both battlefield and naval variants were proposed. Cancelled 1987.
In the early 1990s, Westland incorporated some of the technology from the naval Lynx 3 design into a less-radical Super Lynx. This featured BERP III rotor blades (having a notch toward the outer end of the rotor blade, with a greater amount of sweepback from the notch to the end of the blade compared to inboard of the notch), the Westland 30-derived tail rotor, Gem 42 engines, a new under-nose 360o radar installation and an optional nose-mounted electro-optical sensor turret. Royal Navy Lynx HAS3s upgraded to Super Lynx standard were known in service as the Lynx HMA8, and several export customers ordered new-build or upgraded Super Lynxes. From the 1990s onwards, Westland began offering the Super Lynx 200 (which was equipped with CTS800 engines) and Super Lynx 300, which also had a new (glass) cockpit and avionics derived from the AgustaWestland AW101.
Advanced Lynx variant based on the Super Lynx 300, with a new tailboom, undercarriage, cockpit, avionics and sensors. Initially referred to as the Future Lynx and later as the Lynx Wildcat, this type has since been re-designated as the AgustaWestland AW159 Wildcat. While having the Lynx as the origins and basis of its design, the Wildcat differs substantially, only 5% of its components, such as the fuel system and main rotor gearbox, remain interchangeable the later variants of the Lynx.
Initial production version for the AAC, powered by 671 kW (900 hp) Gem 2 engines. First flight 11 February 1977, and deliveries continuing until February 1984, with 113 built.Used for tactical transport, armed escort, anti-tank warfare (60 were equipped with eight Hughes BGM-71 TOW missiles as Lynx AH1(TOW) from 1981), reconnaissance and casualty evacuation. The Lynx AH.1GT was an interim conversion of the AH1 to partial AH7 standard for the Army Air Corps with uprated engines and revised tail rotor.
Upgraded version with 835 kW (1,120 shp) Gem 41-1 engines and uprated gearbox. Three built as AH5 (Interim) trials aircraft, eight ordered for AAC, of which only two built as AH.5s, with remaining six completed as AH7s.
Proposed version for the Royal Marines with undercarriage, folding tail and deck harpoon of Naval Lynx. Not built.
Upgrade for 107 AH1 airframes (and 12 new built), with Gem 41-1 engines, uprated gearbox and new, larger, composite tail rotor. Later refitted with BERP type rotor blades. The Lynx AH7 can also be outfitted for the anti-armour role, with the attachment of 2 pylons, each carrying four, Hughes BGM-71 TOW missiles. In the anti-armour role the AH7 is now replaced by the Apache AH1. The Lynx AH7(DAS) has an additional Defensive Aids Subsystem.
Utility version for Army Air Corps, based on AH7, but with wheeled undercarriage and further upgraded gearbox. Sixteen new-built plus eight converted from AH7s. The Lynx AH9A is re-engined with CTS800-4N engines rated at 1,015 kW (1,362 shp). All 22 have been upgraded.
Initial production anti-submarine version for the Royal Navy and French Navy (as Lynx HAS2(FN)), powered by Gem 2 engines and with wheeled undercarriage, folding rotors and tail and deck harpoon. Avionics include the Ferranti Seaspray radar, Racal Orange Crop ESM with the HAS2(FN) having French radar and dipping sonar. Armed with two torpedoes or depth charges for the antisubmarine role and either four British Aerospace Sea Skua missiles (Royal Navy) or four Aerospatiale AS.12 missiles (French Navy) in the air-to-surface role. 60 built for Royal Navy, and 26 for France. The Lynx HAS2.5 is an interim HAS3 with the improved Gem 42 engine but the original HAS2 gearbox.
Uprated HAS2 with Gem 42-1 Mk204 engines and upgraded gearbox. Thirty built from new and all remaining HAS2s (53 aircraft) converted to HAS3 standard. The Lynx HAS3GM (for Gulf Mod) adapted for service in Gulf War, with improved electronic warfare equipment, revised IFF and provision for FLIR under fuselage. Designated HAS3SGM when fitted with secure radios, Mode 4 IFF, AN/ALQ-157 Infra Red Countermeasures turrets (fitted on the fuselage side high up just behind the Plot's/Observer's doors), M130 Chaff/Flare dispensers and provision for Sandpiper Forward looking infrared (FLIR) mounted under the port side inboard weapon carrier. The Lynx HAS3S is an improved HAS3 with secure radio systems, the Lynx HAS3ICE is modified for Antarctic service aboard ice patrol ships HMS Endurance, designated HAS3SICE when fitted with secure radios. The Lynx HAS3CTS has the avionics suite proposed for the Lynx HMA8. Seven converted as test beds.
Upgraded maritime attack version based on Super Lynx 100. Gem 42-200 engines, BERP type main rotors and larger tail rotor of AH7. Fitted with FLIR in turret above nose, with radar moved to radome below nose. The Lynx HMA8(DSP) has a Digital Signal Processor, the Lynx HMA8(DAS) a Defensive Aids Subsystem, the Lynx HMA8(SRU) has a SATURN (Second-generation Anti-jam Tactical UHF Radio for NATO) Radio Upgrade. DAS aircraft modified. Incorporates SIFF (Successor to IFF). The Lynx HMA8(CMP) (for Combined Mods Programme) is modified with improved communications and defensive systems.
Export version of the HAS2 for the Brazilian Navy. Brazilian navy designation SAH-11. Nine delivered. The Super Lynx Mk.21A is based on the HAS8, has Gem 42 engines and 360° scan Seaspray 3000 radar under nose. Nine new build helicopters plus upgrades of remaining five original Mk21s.
Proposed export version for the Egyptian Navy. Cancelled.
Proposed export version of the HAS2 for the Argentine Navy. Two built. Cancelled, single surviving helicopter later sold to Denmark.
Unbuilt export utility version for the Iraqi army.
Export version of the HAS2 for the Royal Netherlands Navy, designated UH-14A. Used for utility and SAR roles. Six built.
Unbuilt export armed version for the Iraqi army.
Export version of the AH1 for the Qatar Police. Three built.
Export version of the Super Lynx for the South African Air Force.
Export version for the Royal Danish Navy based on the HAS3 but with non-folding tail. Eight built.
Upgraded ASW version for the Royal Netherlands Navy, powered by Gem 41 engines with no sonar but fitted with towed MAD. Designated SH-14C in Dutch service, and mainly used for training and utility purposes. Eight built. The SH-14D is a UH-14A/SH-14B/SH-14C upgrade to a common standard by the Royal Netherlands Navy under the STAMOL programme with Gem 42 engines, provision for dipping sonar and FLIR. 22 upgraded.
Unbuilt export version for the Egyptian army
Unbuilt export version for the Saudi Arabian army.
Unbuilt export version for the Qatar army.
Unbuilt export version for the United Arab Emirates army.
Export SAR version of the HAS.2 for the Royal Norwegian Air Force.
Embargoed export version for the Argentine navy. Two completed and sold to Denmark as Mk90.
Export version for the German Navy with Gem 42 engines, and dipping sonar. Nineteen built. The Super Lynx Mk.88A is an upgraded export version with under-nose radome with 360° traverse radar and FLIR above nose. Seven new build helicopters plus conversion of 17 Mk88s.
Export version of HAS3 for the Nigerian navy. Three built.
Export version for the Royal Danish Navy, modified from embargoed Argentine Mk87s. Lynx Mk90A is the upgraded version.The Lynx Mk90 and Mk90A were upgraded to Super Lynx Mk90B standard.
Super Lynx Mk99
Version of Super Lynx for the South Korean Navy, with Seaspray Mk3 radar in undernose radome, dipping sonar, and FLIR, for anti-submarine and anti-ship operations. Twelve were built. Super Lynx Mk.99A is the upgraded version with improved rotor, with a further 13 built.
Super Lynx Mk100
Super Lynx for the Royal Malaysian Navy, with 990 kW (1,327 hp) CTS-800-4N engines. Six built.
Super Lynx Mk110
Super Lynx 300 for Thai Navy. Four ordered.
Super Lynx Mk120
Export version for the Royal Air Force of Oman. 16 built.
Super Lynx Mk130
Export version for the Algerian Navy. Four ordered.