Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor
From Scramble - The Aviation Magazine
|Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor|
|Role||Air Defense Fighter/Strike aircraft|
|First Flight||September 7, 1997 (F-22A)|
|Entered Service||December 15, 2005|
|Length||18.90 m||62 ft 1 in|
|Wingspan||13.56 m||44 ft 6 in|
|Height||5,08 m||16 ft 8 in|
|Wing area||78.04 m²||840 ft²|
|Empty||14,379 kg||31,700 lb|
|Loaded||25,107 kg||55,352 lb|
|Maximum takeoff weight||36,288 kg||88,000 lb|
|Engines||two Pratt & Whitney F119-GE-100|
|Thrust||156 kN+ (each)||35,000 lbf+ (each)|
|Maximum speed||Mach 2+, supercruise: Mach 1.72|
|Combat radius||780 km||410 miles|
|Service ceiling||19,812 m||65,000 ft|
|Rate of climb||m/min||ft/min|
|Avionics||Northrop Grumman AN/APG-77|
|Armament||One General Dynamics (General Electric) M61A2 Vulcan 20 mm gun with 480 rounds, 6x AIM-120C AMRAAM, 2x AIM-9X Sidewinder, 2x GBU-32 JDAMs in internal weapon bays|
The Lockheed Martin/Boeing F-22 Raptor is an American fighter aircraft that uses stealth technology. It is primarily an air superiority fighter, but has multiple capabilities that include ground attack, electronic warfare, and signals intelligence roles. The United States Air Force considers the F-22 a critical component of the U.S. strike force. It's supersonic cruise capability at 50,000 ft class altitudes, puts the F-22 outside the envelope of most SAM systems and present air defence fighters.
- November 1981: US Air Force releases requirement for F-15 replacement;
- 1 October 1985: Lockheed Martin Model 090P frozen;
- July 1986: RfP released by US Air Force;
- August 1986: Lockheed, Boeing and General Dynamics sign MoU for a teaming agreement;
- October 1986: Lockheed/Boeing/General Dynamics and Northrop/McDonnell Douglas selected for dem/val resulting in the YF-22 and the YF-23 Black Widow II;
- 13 July 1987: YF-22 Configuration 1095 determined technically and competitively unacceptable by the contractor team;
- October 1987: Configuration 614, with diamond wing and four tails, selected;
- November 1987: tail arrangement modified;
- May 1988: forebody and aft fuselage redesigned;
- 29 September 1990: 1st flight YF-22;
- 23 April 1991: F-22/Pratt & Whitney F119 selected as winner of ATF competition;
- 16 December 1991: external design is frozen;
- 4 June 1992: Critical Design Review completed;
- July 1995: wind tunnel testing complete;
- 9 April 1997: F-22 Raptor publicly unveiled;
- 7 September 1997: 1st flight F-22A c/n 4001;
- 14 January 2003: 1st production F-22A delivered to US Air Force;
- 29 August 2007: 100th F-22A rolled-out;
- 14 December 2011: 187th and final F-22A rolled-out.
The 36 Block 20 Raptors are used for trials and training. Expected to be upgraded to Block 20 standard.
In the F-22A Block 20 standard, the aircraft can also carry bombs compatible with the 1,000 lbs GBU-32 JDAM, and the new GBU-39/-40 Small-Diameter Bomb (SDB). Other Block 20 upgrades include high resolution synthetic aperture radar mapping modes, better radar ECCM, two-way voice and data multi-functional information distribution system (MIDS/Link 16) capability.
Standard with Increment 3.1 capabilities, introducing side-looking radar arrays to provide a initial ISR capability as well as electronic attack modes to the AN/APG-77. Also, a satellite communication terminal will be added to provide network connectivity during deep strike missions.
New weapons are introduced to 86 Block 35 airframes under increment 3.2.
Operational Flight Program
The first of three Operational Flight Program software upgrades. Increment 3.1 gives the Raptor air-to-ground capability, using the GBU-39/B Small Diameter Bomb. The Raptor can carry eight GBU-39/Bs, four per weapons bay mounted on BRU-61 racks. To be released at speeds up to Mach 1.5, the GBU-39/B can strike targets at very long stand-off ranges. A new SAR mode provides high resolution (black and white photo-quality) images and allow the pilot to designate the target, transfer that information to the GBU-39/B and release the weapon. Increment 3.1 entered US Air Force service in March 2012.
Increment 3.2 has been split into smaller packages called A, B and C and will will introduce new weapon options (AIM-9X Sidewinder and AIM-120D AMRAAM) updated avionics and the ability to independently retarget up to eight SDBs against eight separate targets.
Increment 3.2A will add new electronic protection measures and new combat identification capabilities to the Raptor. It will also field the Multifunction Advanced Data Link, enabling the Raptor to correlate data from the receive-only Link 16 data-link and fuse it with the F-22's integrated sensors.
In 2017 the US Air Force hopes to start installing Increment 3.2B modifications onto its Raptor fleet. Increment 3.2B is a hardware and software upgrade that will fully incorporate the AIM-120D and AIM-9X air-to-air missiles onto the F-22. It will also further upgrade the aircraft's geo-location and electronic protection capabilities. However, the US Air Force expects to incorporate rudimentary AIM-9X and AIM-120D capability onto the Raptor before 2017. An AIM-9X missile was launched from an F-22 for the first time on 17 May 2012, followed by the first supersonic AIM-9X launch on 30 July 2012)
Not yet been fully defined, but the US Air Force is trying to add open-architecture hardware and software.
The US Air Force is funding a subsequent Increment 3.3 upgrade as a separate procurement programm.
Production model, powered by Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 turbofan engines. The F-22's avionics include BAE Systems E&IS RWR AN/ALR-94 (450 km detection range) and the Northrop Grumman AN/APG-77 AESA radar (250 km detection range for fighter targets). The AN/APG-77 has both long-range target acquisition and low probability of interception of its own signals by enemy aircraft.
Proposed two-seat version. Cancelled.
Company designation for strike aircraft derative, planned for service around 2020. The FB-22A would have a enlarged wing and weapon bay and a stretched fuselage to accommodate a second crew member.
Air International February 2006